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Research Principles

The Economics Department at LMU Munich is dedicated to promoting and disseminating economic research that meets the standards of good scientific practice. In advancing these objectives, all faculty members are expected to follow standard principles of scientific integrity and to abide by codes of professional ethics when carrying out research, participating in research meetings, and interacting with other scholars. Research misconduct, defined to include the fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism of research findings, will not be tolerated.

We embrace transparent and open discussions. Therefore, members of the Economics Department are expected to disclose all financial and other relationships that could be perceived as bearing on their research findings. In addition, members of the Economics Department are expected to treat others in the scientific community, including students, colleagues, research assistants, and collaborators, with respect and to create an open and inclusive professional culture, that sparks the exchange of ideas.

Collaboration / Co-Authorship

The prevalence of collaboration and co-authorship has been increasing in Economics over the past decades and co-authorship is an important driver for networks in the profession. When collaborating with one or several co-author(s), members of the Economics Department are expected to follow standards for ordering in the profession (i.e., alphabetically or randomized2 when ordering the authors on the paper / project as long as there are no sound
reasons not to do so. These reasons may include publication in (non-economic) journals that have different standards. Individual characteristics, such as differences in the seniority of co-authors, do not qualify as sound reason.

The group of co-authors should include only individuals who substantially contributed intellectual and independent work to the project. Giving feedback, answering questions or proof reading a paper does typically not qualify for co-authorship. Also, advising a PhD student does not qualify for being a co-author on their paper.  Following standards in social sciences, purely supervised or instructed work, often referred to as research assistance, does typically not qualify for co-authorship. Likewise, everybody who puts in substantial intellectual and independent work in a project ought to be included in the list of co-authors. This holds true irrespective of the individual position and especially includes PhD students working with senior co-authors.

Both randomized and alphabetically ordered lists of co-authors do not give any information n the task sharing between the co-authors and consequently do not allow for giving some co-authors more credit than others. However, not all individuals get the same credit when working with co-authors because of (implicit) biases we have. Women for instance receive less credit for joint projects when they have male co-authors3. Thus, it is important to give credit to co-authors when presenting / talking about joint projects and to emphasize the contribution of co-authors that belong to an underrepresented group in Economics or are more junior.

The contact person for research related topics is the Dean of Research of the Economics Department:

      Carsten Eckel,, +49 89 2180 5824

Please contact him in case of violations of the above principles or doubts about whether they are being followed.

2 The American Economic Association provides a tool for randomization that publically archives the outcome to make it publically available:

Resources on co-authorship

Card, David, Stefano DellaVigna, Patricia Funk, and Nagore Iriberri. "Are Referees and Editors in Economics Gender Neutral?." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 135, no. 1 (2020): 269-327.

Card, David, Stefano DellaVigna, Patricia Funk, and Nagore Iriberri. "Gender Differences in Peer Recognition by Economists." (2020).

Hsieh, Chih-Sheng, Michael. D. König, Xiaodong Liu, and Christian Zimmermann. "How researcher rankings and research funding instruments can gain from information about co-authorship networks." (2018). VoxEU.Org.

Kuld, Lukas, and John O’Hagan. "Rise of multi-authored papers in economics: Demise of the ‘lone star’and why?." Scientometrics 114, no. 3 (2018): 1207-1225.

Kuld, Lukas, and John O'Hagan. "The trend of increasing co-authorship in economics: New evidence." VoxEU. org 16 (2017). VoxEU.Org.

Sarsons, Heather. "Recognition for group work: Gender differences in academia." American Economic Review 107, no. 5 (2017): 141-45.

Zimmermann, Christian, Chih-Sheng Hsieh, Michael D. König, and Xiaodong Liu. "Superstar Economists: Coauthorship Networks and Research Output." FRB St. Louis Working Paper 2018-28 (2018).